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Xi Jinping takes risky path in disposal of ‘tiger’ Zhou Yongkang

Xi Jinping takes risky path in disposal of ‘tiger’ Zhou Yongkang

Ever since China’s new leader Xi Jinping launched his anti-corruption drive 20 months ago, most observers have been wondering how far and high would he go.自中国新任领导人习近平在20个月前发起反腐运动以来,大多数观察家都想知道,这场运动会波及多大范围,最高能触及哪个级别。

Now we have the answer. On Tuesday, the Chinese Communist party announced that Zhou Yongkang, the former Politburo Standing Committee member and internal security chief, has been formally placed under investigation for serious corruption. Although Mr Zhou was reportedly detained in December, it remained unclear until this week whether Mr Xi would initiate formal disciplinary proceedings against him. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976, the Chinese leadership has observed an unwritten rule: incumbent or retired members of the Politburo Standing Committee are untouchable.如今,答案终于揭晓。周二,中共宣布前中央政治局常委、国内安全事务主管周永康因严重贪腐被正式立案审查。虽然有报道称,周永康去年12月就已被羁押,但直到本周之前,人们始终不清楚习近平是否会对他启动正式纪检程序。自1976年文化大革命(Cultural Revolution)结束以来,中国领导层一直奉行一条不成文规矩:现任或已退休中央政治局常委是不能动的。

By ensnaring a senior official of Mr Zhou’s standing, Mr Xi apparently seeks to accomplish several objectives. To the Chinese people, Mr Xi hopes to offer reassurance that he is working hard to cleanse the rot inside the party. To his rivals, the downfall of Mr Zhou sends a clear warning: jail awaits those daring to challenge my authority (Mr Zhou is an ally of the now-disgraced former Politburo member Bo Xilai, Mr Xi’s adversary during the leadership transition). To everyone else, Mr Xi shows that he is now unquestionably the most powerful Chinese leader since Deng Xiaoping.通过清理周永康这个级别的高官,习近平看上去是希望一箭三雕。对于中国人民,习近平希望能让他们确信,他正在努力清除党内腐败。对于他的对手,周永康的倒台传递出明确的警示信号:敢于挑战我的权威的人们,等待你们的是牢狱之灾(周永康是已身败名裂的前政治局委员、习近平接班的对手薄熙来的盟友)。对于所有其他人,习近平通过此事显示出,他已毫无争议地成为邓小平之后拥有最大权力的中国领导人。

There is little doubt that most Chinese people will cheer Mr Xi’s latest triumph in his “tiger-hunt” (corrupt senior officials are called “tigers” in China). The alleged corruption of Mr Zhou’s family members and cronies is shocking even by Chinese standards. One of Mr Zhou’s sons allegedly amassed a fortune worth at least Rmb1bn ($160m) and is said to have done business with a mining tycoon recently convicted of murder and organised crime. Caging a “tiger” of Mr Zhou’s size can indeed assuage a great deal of public anger.毫无疑问,习近平“打虎运动”(中国把腐败高官称为“老虎”)的最新进展会让多数中国人欢欣鼓舞。即使以中国的标准来看,周永康家族成员及其党羽涉嫌的贪腐行为都触目惊心。他的一个儿子涉嫌聚敛的财富起码价值10亿元(合1.6亿美元),据说还曾与一位最近被控谋杀和有组织犯罪的矿业大亨合伙做过生意。把周永康这个级别的“老虎”关进笼子,无疑能大大缓解民愤。

But it is less clear whether China’s ruling elites are in celebratory mood. Mr Xi’s anti-corruption campaign may have earned him enormous popularity, but it has also made life much less pleasant for Chinese officials accustomed to perks and privileges. As part of his campaign, Mr Xi’s austerity measures have kept many Chinese officials out of luxury hotels and fancy restaurants and deterred them from accepting expensive gifts.不过,目前不那么清楚的是,中国统治阶层精英是否同样感到振奋。反腐运动也许会为习近平带来巨大人气,但对于那些习惯了津贴和特权的中国官员来说,这场运动却让他们的日子不那么好过了。习近平的倡廉举措已令许多中国官员远离豪华酒店和高级饭馆,也不再有胆量收受昂贵礼品。

Even more unbearable is the sense of insecurity and fear that has pervaded the Chinese officialdom. Because practices such as giving cash gifts to gain official appointments and promotions and helping private businessmen secure contracts are widespread inside the party, a very large number of Chinese officials dread being hauled in for investigation or worse. The Chinese media has already noted a recent rise in the number of officials who have committed suicide.更让他们难以忍受的,是弥漫在中国官场的那种不安全感和恐惧感。在中共党内,通过贿赂得到官职和晋升、商人行贿官员赢得合同的行为十分普遍,大批中国官员深恐成为调查目标或面对更糟糕的结局。中国已有媒体指出,最近官员自杀人数呈上升趋势。

With the fall of Mr Zhou, Mr Xi’s anti-corruption campaign is entering a more delicate phase.随着周永康的倒台,习近平的反腐运动进入了一个更加微妙的阶段。

The most important decision awaiting Mr Xi is when and how to bring his anti-corruption drive to a soft landing. To date his campaign has claimed 36 senior officials with the rank of minister or provincial governor, and thousands of minions. While the benefits of gaining public support and political authority are obvious, the risks are considerable. By airing the party’s dirty laundry in public, Mr Xi has, perhaps unavoidably, exposed the rot and schisms inside the CCP. Instead of boosting popular confidence in his ability to save the regime, the daily media revelations of looting and debauchery inside the government may achieve the opposite effect of making ordinary people lose faith.他眼下需要做出的一个最重要决定,就是何时、以何种方式将反腐运动导向“软着陆”。迄今为止,这场运动已经让36名省部级高官和数千名级别更低的官员落马。尽管获得民众支持和树立政治权威的作用非常明显,其中的风险也是巨大的。在公开“家丑”的过程中,习近平几乎是不可避免地暴露了中共内部的腐朽和分歧。媒体每天都在曝光更多官员的巧取豪夺和纵情声色,非但不能让公众对中共政权更有信心,反而可能导致人们对习近平挽救这个政权的能力丧失信心。

Far more dangerous is the split that is now likely to emerge inside the party. Mr Xi’s campaign has engendered an unprecedented degree of fear among Chinese officials. In politics, fear is a unifying force. If many of Mr Xi’s colleagues and rivals believe that they could be the next tigers to fall, their survival instinct might motivate them to challenge Mr Xi’s authority. The unity of leadership that has held the party together since Tiananmen could evaporate.一个更加危险的问题,是中共内部很可能会出现分裂。习近平的反腐运动已经在中国官员中引发了史无前例的恐惧感。在政治上,恐惧是一种力量,能让人团结起来。如果习近平的众多同僚和对手确信他们可能会成为下一个被打掉的老虎,他们的生存本能可能会促使他们挑战习近平的权威。天安门事件以来,最高领导层的团结将中共凝聚在一起,这种团结可能行将瓦解。

Properly disposing of a captured tiger is no easy task. Under Chinese law, Mr Zhou will have to be tried in a court. Based on media revelations, it will be a tough challenge for the prosecutors to tie Mr Zhou directly to the acts committed by his family members and cronies. But for Mr Xi, trying and convicting Mr Zhou in a legal proceeding that meets the minimum standard of openness and fairness is a political necessity. Anything less would fuel speculation about the real reason for his downfall.如何妥善处理一头已经被俘的老虎,也不是一件易事。依照中国法律,周永康应当接受法庭审判。基于媒体目前曝光的信息,要把周永康与其家族成员和党羽的所作所为直接联系在一起,对检方而言是个很大的挑战。然而对于习近平来说,依法审判周永康并将其定罪在政治上极有必要,而且这个法律程序在开放性和公正性上都需要满足最低标准,其中哪一个环节的缺失都会引发对周永康倒台真实原因的猜测。

The hunt for Zhou the mega-tiger may be over. But the political drama in Beijing is not.对大老虎周永康的捕猎也许已经结束,但北京的政治大戏却远未终止。

The writer is a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College in California, US本文作者是美国加利福尼亚州克莱蒙特麦肯纳学院(Claremont McKenna College)政府学教授

译者/何黎


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How Do Chinese students Deal With Their Graduation Thesis

Wang Lei has already finished his dissertation weeks before the deadline in late May, but the 21-year-old student at Beijing Information Science and Technology University feels no relief as his thesis still needs to pass the plagiarism test.


21岁的王磊(音)是北京信息科技大学的学生,他们学校提交毕业学位论文的截止日期在五月下旬。虽然很早就完成了论文,但是他仍然很紧张,因为论文还需要通过相似性检测。

“I used a lot of material, but I forgot the sources, so I’m afraid I won’t pass,” he says.

他说:“我借鉴了太多材料,已经不记得出处了,所以我很担心自己的论文不能通过检测。”

Many of Wang’s peers share the same concerns. They write their theses without referencing the sources they use. As a result, when the test results come out, they have to rewrite part of their theses. In order to avoid such a situation, scholars suggest students familiarize themselves with citation and referencing styles, and start taking notes of their sources at an early stage.

无独有偶,很多大学生都为此而困扰。因为他们在写论文时没有列出所有使用文献的出处,于是,相似性结果出来后,他们又得重写论文的某些部分。为了避免这种情况,一些学者建议大学生们应熟悉引用书目与参考文献的规范,在写论文伊始就记录好文献出处。

Important differences

举足轻重的不同之处

Yu Zhejun, a lecturer of philosophy at Fudan University, used to offer thesis-writing lectures to students in his department. As he observed, many students know very little about referencing styles.

于哲君(音)是复旦大学历史系的讲师,曾会为他们学院的学生讲授论文写作。正如他所见,很多学生都对参考书目的书写规范不甚了解。

“The papers they submit often include several styles of referencing,” he says. “Often they can’t even tell the difference between references and the bibliography.”

他说:“学生交上来的论文往往夹杂着好几种参考文献的格式,他们经常连引用书目与参考文献都分不清。”

As Yu explains, the bibliography is the complete list of material consulted for the thesis, while the references explain the exact source and location of the material cited in the paper. There are two major styles of referencing that are commonly used in dissertations, namely Chicago style and Harvard style. (see below)

正如于老师的解释,参考文献一般是写论文中所有参考到的文献,而引用书目则是论文中引用的准确出处以及引用文字在原文献中的位置(页码)。一般而言,学位论文的引用书目有两种格式,一种是芝加哥格式,一种是哈佛格式(详见下文)。

“As soon as you start reading for your dissertation, it is crucial to make detailed notes of what you’ve read and its sources,” he says. Since anything students read could become part of their thesis, having such detailed notes will avoid plagiarism in the writing phase.

他还说,“你一旦开始为写论文阅读文献,就需要详细记录所有看过的文献及其出处,这很重要。”因为学生读过的任何内容都有可能会成为其论文一部分,做详细的记录将避免他们在写作环节出现抄袭的困扰。

Focus on research

专注于研究

When it comes to writing a dissertation, Zhang Jin, professor of history at Nanjing Normal University, says many students struggle with citations.

来自南京师范大学的张金教授(音)说,对于许多学生而言,只要一写论文,就会因为引用书目而苦苦纠结。

One of the most frequent mistakes they make is giving indirect sources. “They cite something that quotes the same thing from another source,” he says. “In such cases, the right procedure is to find the original source and reference it.”

在他看来,最常见的问题就是“二次引用”,“他们会引用其他文献中引用的内容。而在这种情况下,找到原出处并引用原文才是正确之道。”

Another major mistake students often make is being disrespectful of originality. For example, if they find an idea useful, they don’t bother to find out who suggested it, but simply refer to the material in which they read about it, according to Zhang.

而不尊重原创性则是学生常犯的另一个主要错误。比如,如果学生发现了一个可用的观点,他们会不管这一观点究竟出自何人之口,就只是列出他看到出现过这一观点的文献。

Such details are what matter the most in undergraduate dissertations, he says. “We don’t expect students to submit papers with great ideas. Instead, they should learn how to write papers and conduct research properly,” he says. Zhang believes that, ultimately, writing a thesis is research training for college students.

张教授还说,“这些细节性问题在本科毕业论文中最多。我们并不指望学生们的论文阐述了多少伟大的观点,相反,我们希望他们能学会如何正确地写论文、做研究。”他认为,说到底,写论文正是对大学生科研能力的一种锻炼。

Choose a style and stick to it

选择一种格式,并应用到底

Chicago style: It is a method of citation commonly used in the art field. Students can find a quick guide to this style at www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

芝加哥格式:该格式一般用于文科领域的论文引用。可参考网页:www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

Harvard style: It is a widely used referencing system. According to Yu Zhejun, a lecturer of philosophy at Fudan University, in China this system is more commonly used by science students.

哈佛格式:该格式广泛使用于论文引用。根据复旦大学讲师于哲君的说法,国内的理科生大多采用这种格式。

Other material: Students can find advice on references and citations in Introduction to the Study of Chinese Ancient History, a book by Rong Xinjiang, professor of history at Peking University.

其他文献:更多关于参考文献与引用的建议,同学们可以参考北京大学历史系教授荣新江的著作《中国古代史研究入门》。


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Major -- Choose What I like

Wearing a simple cap and gown, Xue Yifan, 22, looks solemnly into the camera. Standing in front of the big library on campus, her graduation photo is a bit unusual - she is all alone. That’s because Xue is the only paleontology graduate from Peking University this year.


身着学士服,头戴学士帽,22岁的薛逸凡在镜头前显得很严肃。同样以高大的图书馆为背景,薛世凡的毕业照却有些与众不同——照片中只有她一个人,因为她是北京大学古生物学专业今年唯一的毕业生。

The photo went viral after it was posted online. People are impressed by her determination to pursue the academic degree. She devoted herself to a seemingly dull major instead of jumping on the bandwagon.


这张毕业照在被传到网上后迅速走红,她选择这个专业的决心更令人印象深刻。放弃了当下最“火”的专业,薛逸凡却选择了一个看似枯燥无味的专业。

But Xue is not the only student with a genuinely academic goal. There are many more students who choose less popular majors and stick to them, simply because they love what they are learning about.


勇敢追求自己学术目标的远不只薛逸凡一个人,还有很多学生也和她一样因为兴趣爱好而选择了相对冷门的专业。

Pure sound


纯粹的声音

Song Jiazhe, 21, is an audiology student at Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. His university offers the only audiology program for undergraduate students in China. About 100 students graduate from the major every year.


21岁的宋佳哲(音译)就读于浙江中医药大学,因为这所学校是中国唯一本科开设听力学专业的高校,每年约100名该专业的大学生从这里毕业。

“The number of graduates is so small that people seldom even notice the existence of our major,” Song says. But he believes his major is of great importance.


宋佳哲说“这个专业的毕业生实在太少了,人们几乎都没听说过我们专业”。但他坚信自己的专业十分重要。

“We take care of newborn babies and seniors,” he says. Checking the hearing of newborn babies and helping seniors with hearing loss are the two major responsibilities audiology graduates shoulder after their graduation.


他说:“我们照顾新生儿与老年人,为新生儿检查听力,帮助听力受损的老年人是我们专业毕业生的主要职责。”

In order to achieve this goal, Song studies hard and values every opportunity to practice. He spends every vacation interning at hospitals. “I am always the first to arrive and the last to leave, just to get as much real experience as possible,” he says.


为了能履行这一目标,宋佳哲努力学习,珍惜每一个实践机会。每个假期,他都在医院实习,他说:“为了能更多的积累实际经验,我常常是最早到、最晚走的。”

Classy major


优雅的专业

Compared with Song, Meng Ziwei’s major seems more entertaining. The 19-year-old is studying golf management at Shenzhen University. It’s a newly launched major, explains Meng. Her department has less than 100 students, who will work as golf coaches and golf club managers once they graduate.


相较于宋佳哲的专业,孟紫薇(音译)的专业似乎更有意思。这位19岁的姑娘就读于深圳大学高尔夫管理专业。孟紫薇解释道,这是一个新开设的专业,他们系学生人数不足100,而他们毕业之后将成为高尔夫教练或者高尔夫俱乐部的管理人员。

However, the major requires hard work. Meng and her peers not only have classes on business management, but must also attend golf training. “I practice golf three times a week,” she says. Some of her peers even practice on a daily basis. “I love what I’m learning from the bottom of my heart,” she says, “so the tough training is never a problem for me.”


不过,这个专业并不轻松。孟紫薇和她的同学们不仅需要完成商业管理类课程,还要参加高尔夫球训练。她说:“我每周需要练习三次高尔夫球。”而她的一些同学甚至每天都参加训练。但是,她说:“我真心喜欢自己的专业,所以再辛苦的训练于我也不是问题。”

Dinosaur fever


恐龙发烧友

Another student who chose a major based on her interest is Bai Wanyi, a 20-year-old student of paleontology at Shenyang Normal University. She has been a paleontology fan ever since she was in elementary school. “Those dinosaurs just amazed me so much that I decided to study them,” she says. While her peers bought beautiful Barbie dolls, Bai collected rocks. Finally she enrolled in a paleontology program despite resistance from her parents.


同样因为兴趣选择自己专业的还有白婉怡(音译)。20岁的她目前就读于沈阳师范大学古生物学专业。早在上小学的时候,她就是一个古生物迷,她说“那些恐龙深深地吸引了我,于是我决定将来研究它们。”小伙伴们买漂亮的芭比娃娃时,白婉怡却在收集岩石。最后,她顶住来自父母的压力,终于进入古生物专业学习。

“In my eyes, paleontology is not a dull subject that only deals with old rocks. Instead, it studies our past by examining the fossils of ancient life forms,” Bai says. She believes that mastering the present is based on a good understanding of the past.


白婉怡说,“在我看来,古生物专业并不是只和古老岩石打交道的枯燥专业,相反,它让我们通过检测古生物化石,了解人类的过去。”她相信,只有充分了解过去,才能更好地把握当下。

“I’m sticking to the choice I made and I will further my studies in paleontology after I graduate,” she says.


白婉怡说:“我会坚持自己的选择,在毕业后继续钻研古生物学。”


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What's going on in my university?

Xi Jinping takes risky path in disposal of ‘tiger’ Zhou Yongkang

Xi Jinping takes risky path in disposal of ‘tiger’ Zhou Yongkang

Ever since China’s new leader Xi Jinping launched his anti-corruption drive 20 months ago, most observers have been wondering how far and high would he go.自中国新任领导人习近平在20个月前发起反腐运动以来,大多数观察家都想知道,这场运动会波及多大范围,最高能触及哪个级别。

Now we have the answer. On Tuesday, the Chinese Communist party announced that Zhou Yongkang, the former Politburo Standing Committee member and internal security chief, has been formally placed under investigation for serious corruption. Although Mr Zhou was reportedly detained in December, it remained unclear until this week whether Mr Xi would initiate formal disciplinary proceedings against him. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976, the Chinese leadership has observed an unwritten rule: incumbent or retired members of the Politburo Standing Committee are untouchable.如今,答案终于揭晓。周二,中共宣布前中央政治局常委、国内安全事务主管周永康因严重贪腐被正式立案审查。虽然有报道称,周永康去年12月就已被羁押,但直到本周之前,人们始终不清楚习近平是否会对他启动正式纪检程序。自1976年文化大革命(Cultural Revolution)结束以来,中国领导层一直奉行一条不成文规矩:现任或已退休中央政治局常委是不能动的。

By ensnaring a senior official of Mr Zhou’s standing, Mr Xi apparently seeks to accomplish several objectives. To the Chinese people, Mr Xi hopes to offer reassurance that he is working hard to cleanse the rot inside the party. To his rivals, the downfall of Mr Zhou sends a clear warning: jail awaits those daring to challenge my authority (Mr Zhou is an ally of the now-disgraced former Politburo member Bo Xilai, Mr Xi’s adversary during the leadership transition). To everyone else, Mr Xi shows that he is now unquestionably the most powerful Chinese leader since Deng Xiaoping.通过清理周永康这个级别的高官,习近平看上去是希望一箭三雕。对于中国人民,习近平希望能让他们确信,他正在努力清除党内腐败。对于他的对手,周永康的倒台传递出明确的警示信号:敢于挑战我的权威的人们,等待你们的是牢狱之灾(周永康是已身败名裂的前政治局委员、习近平接班的对手薄熙来的盟友)。对于所有其他人,习近平通过此事显示出,他已毫无争议地成为邓小平之后拥有最大权力的中国领导人。

There is little doubt that most Chinese people will cheer Mr Xi’s latest triumph in his “tiger-hunt” (corrupt senior officials are called “tigers” in China). The alleged corruption of Mr Zhou’s family members and cronies is shocking even by Chinese standards. One of Mr Zhou’s sons allegedly amassed a fortune worth at least Rmb1bn ($160m) and is said to have done business with a mining tycoon recently convicted of murder and organised crime. Caging a “tiger” of Mr Zhou’s size can indeed assuage a great deal of public anger.毫无疑问,习近平“打虎运动”(中国把腐败高官称为“老虎”)的最新进展会让多数中国人欢欣鼓舞。即使以中国的标准来看,周永康家族成员及其党羽涉嫌的贪腐行为都触目惊心。他的一个儿子涉嫌聚敛的财富起码价值10亿元(合1.6亿美元),据说还曾与一位最近被控谋杀和有组织犯罪的矿业大亨合伙做过生意。把周永康这个级别的“老虎”关进笼子,无疑能大大缓解民愤。

But it is less clear whether China’s ruling elites are in celebratory mood. Mr Xi’s anti-corruption campaign may have earned him enormous popularity, but it has also made life much less pleasant for Chinese officials accustomed to perks and privileges. As part of his campaign, Mr Xi’s austerity measures have kept many Chinese officials out of luxury hotels and fancy restaurants and deterred them from accepting expensive gifts.不过,目前不那么清楚的是,中国统治阶层精英是否同样感到振奋。反腐运动也许会为习近平带来巨大人气,但对于那些习惯了津贴和特权的中国官员来说,这场运动却让他们的日子不那么好过了。习近平的倡廉举措已令许多中国官员远离豪华酒店和高级饭馆,也不再有胆量收受昂贵礼品。

Even more unbearable is the sense of insecurity and fear that has pervaded the Chinese officialdom. Because practices such as giving cash gifts to gain official appointments and promotions and helping private businessmen secure contracts are widespread inside the party, a very large number of Chinese officials dread being hauled in for investigation or worse. The Chinese media has already noted a recent rise in the number of officials who have committed suicide.更让他们难以忍受的,是弥漫在中国官场的那种不安全感和恐惧感。在中共党内,通过贿赂得到官职和晋升、商人行贿官员赢得合同的行为十分普遍,大批中国官员深恐成为调查目标或面对更糟糕的结局。中国已有媒体指出,最近官员自杀人数呈上升趋势。

With the fall of Mr Zhou, Mr Xi’s anti-corruption campaign is entering a more delicate phase.随着周永康的倒台,习近平的反腐运动进入了一个更加微妙的阶段。

The most important decision awaiting Mr Xi is when and how to bring his anti-corruption drive to a soft landing. To date his campaign has claimed 36 senior officials with the rank of minister or provincial governor, and thousands of minions. While the benefits of gaining public support and political authority are obvious, the risks are considerable. By airing the party’s dirty laundry in public, Mr Xi has, perhaps unavoidably, exposed the rot and schisms inside the CCP. Instead of boosting popular confidence in his ability to save the regime, the daily media revelations of looting and debauchery inside the government may achieve the opposite effect of making ordinary people lose faith.他眼下需要做出的一个最重要决定,就是何时、以何种方式将反腐运动导向“软着陆”。迄今为止,这场运动已经让36名省部级高官和数千名级别更低的官员落马。尽管获得民众支持和树立政治权威的作用非常明显,其中的风险也是巨大的。在公开“家丑”的过程中,习近平几乎是不可避免地暴露了中共内部的腐朽和分歧。媒体每天都在曝光更多官员的巧取豪夺和纵情声色,非但不能让公众对中共政权更有信心,反而可能导致人们对习近平挽救这个政权的能力丧失信心。

Far more dangerous is the split that is now likely to emerge inside the party. Mr Xi’s campaign has engendered an unprecedented degree of fear among Chinese officials. In politics, fear is a unifying force. If many of Mr Xi’s colleagues and rivals believe that they could be the next tigers to fall, their survival instinct might motivate them to challenge Mr Xi’s authority. The unity of leadership that has held the party together since Tiananmen could evaporate.一个更加危险的问题,是中共内部很可能会出现分裂。习近平的反腐运动已经在中国官员中引发了史无前例的恐惧感。在政治上,恐惧是一种力量,能让人团结起来。如果习近平的众多同僚和对手确信他们可能会成为下一个被打掉的老虎,他们的生存本能可能会促使他们挑战习近平的权威。天安门事件以来,最高领导层的团结将中共凝聚在一起,这种团结可能行将瓦解。

Properly disposing of a captured tiger is no easy task. Under Chinese law, Mr Zhou will have to be tried in a court. Based on media revelations, it will be a tough challenge for the prosecutors to tie Mr Zhou directly to the acts committed by his family members and cronies. But for Mr Xi, trying and convicting Mr Zhou in a legal proceeding that meets the minimum standard of openness and fairness is a political necessity. Anything less would fuel speculation about the real reason for his downfall.如何妥善处理一头已经被俘的老虎,也不是一件易事。依照中国法律,周永康应当接受法庭审判。基于媒体目前曝光的信息,要把周永康与其家族成员和党羽的所作所为直接联系在一起,对检方而言是个很大的挑战。然而对于习近平来说,依法审判周永康并将其定罪在政治上极有必要,而且这个法律程序在开放性和公正性上都需要满足最低标准,其中哪一个环节的缺失都会引发对周永康倒台真实原因的猜测。

The hunt for Zhou the mega-tiger may be over. But the political drama in Beijing is not.对大老虎周永康的捕猎也许已经结束,但北京的政治大戏却远未终止。

The writer is a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College in California, US本文作者是美国加利福尼亚州克莱蒙特麦肯纳学院(Claremont McKenna College)政府学教授

译者/何黎


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How Do Chinese students Deal With Their Graduation Thesis

Wang Lei has already finished his dissertation weeks before the deadline in late May, but the 21-year-old student at Beijing Information Science and Technology University feels no relief as his thesis still needs to pass the plagiarism test.


21岁的王磊(音)是北京信息科技大学的学生,他们学校提交毕业学位论文的截止日期在五月下旬。虽然很早就完成了论文,但是他仍然很紧张,因为论文还需要通过相似性检测。

“I used a lot of material, but I forgot the sources, so I’m afraid I won’t pass,” he says.

他说:“我借鉴了太多材料,已经不记得出处了,所以我很担心自己的论文不能通过检测。”

Many of Wang’s peers share the same concerns. They write their theses without referencing the sources they use. As a result, when the test results come out, they have to rewrite part of their theses. In order to avoid such a situation, scholars suggest students familiarize themselves with citation and referencing styles, and start taking notes of their sources at an early stage.

无独有偶,很多大学生都为此而困扰。因为他们在写论文时没有列出所有使用文献的出处,于是,相似性结果出来后,他们又得重写论文的某些部分。为了避免这种情况,一些学者建议大学生们应熟悉引用书目与参考文献的规范,在写论文伊始就记录好文献出处。

Important differences

举足轻重的不同之处

Yu Zhejun, a lecturer of philosophy at Fudan University, used to offer thesis-writing lectures to students in his department. As he observed, many students know very little about referencing styles.

于哲君(音)是复旦大学历史系的讲师,曾会为他们学院的学生讲授论文写作。正如他所见,很多学生都对参考书目的书写规范不甚了解。

“The papers they submit often include several styles of referencing,” he says. “Often they can’t even tell the difference between references and the bibliography.”

他说:“学生交上来的论文往往夹杂着好几种参考文献的格式,他们经常连引用书目与参考文献都分不清。”

As Yu explains, the bibliography is the complete list of material consulted for the thesis, while the references explain the exact source and location of the material cited in the paper. There are two major styles of referencing that are commonly used in dissertations, namely Chicago style and Harvard style. (see below)

正如于老师的解释,参考文献一般是写论文中所有参考到的文献,而引用书目则是论文中引用的准确出处以及引用文字在原文献中的位置(页码)。一般而言,学位论文的引用书目有两种格式,一种是芝加哥格式,一种是哈佛格式(详见下文)。

“As soon as you start reading for your dissertation, it is crucial to make detailed notes of what you’ve read and its sources,” he says. Since anything students read could become part of their thesis, having such detailed notes will avoid plagiarism in the writing phase.

他还说,“你一旦开始为写论文阅读文献,就需要详细记录所有看过的文献及其出处,这很重要。”因为学生读过的任何内容都有可能会成为其论文一部分,做详细的记录将避免他们在写作环节出现抄袭的困扰。

Focus on research

专注于研究

When it comes to writing a dissertation, Zhang Jin, professor of history at Nanjing Normal University, says many students struggle with citations.

来自南京师范大学的张金教授(音)说,对于许多学生而言,只要一写论文,就会因为引用书目而苦苦纠结。

One of the most frequent mistakes they make is giving indirect sources. “They cite something that quotes the same thing from another source,” he says. “In such cases, the right procedure is to find the original source and reference it.”

在他看来,最常见的问题就是“二次引用”,“他们会引用其他文献中引用的内容。而在这种情况下,找到原出处并引用原文才是正确之道。”

Another major mistake students often make is being disrespectful of originality. For example, if they find an idea useful, they don’t bother to find out who suggested it, but simply refer to the material in which they read about it, according to Zhang.

而不尊重原创性则是学生常犯的另一个主要错误。比如,如果学生发现了一个可用的观点,他们会不管这一观点究竟出自何人之口,就只是列出他看到出现过这一观点的文献。

Such details are what matter the most in undergraduate dissertations, he says. “We don’t expect students to submit papers with great ideas. Instead, they should learn how to write papers and conduct research properly,” he says. Zhang believes that, ultimately, writing a thesis is research training for college students.

张教授还说,“这些细节性问题在本科毕业论文中最多。我们并不指望学生们的论文阐述了多少伟大的观点,相反,我们希望他们能学会如何正确地写论文、做研究。”他认为,说到底,写论文正是对大学生科研能力的一种锻炼。

Choose a style and stick to it

选择一种格式,并应用到底

Chicago style: It is a method of citation commonly used in the art field. Students can find a quick guide to this style at www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

芝加哥格式:该格式一般用于文科领域的论文引用。可参考网页:www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

Harvard style: It is a widely used referencing system. According to Yu Zhejun, a lecturer of philosophy at Fudan University, in China this system is more commonly used by science students.

哈佛格式:该格式广泛使用于论文引用。根据复旦大学讲师于哲君的说法,国内的理科生大多采用这种格式。

Other material: Students can find advice on references and citations in Introduction to the Study of Chinese Ancient History, a book by Rong Xinjiang, professor of history at Peking University.

其他文献:更多关于参考文献与引用的建议,同学们可以参考北京大学历史系教授荣新江的著作《中国古代史研究入门》。


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Major -- Choose What I like

Wearing a simple cap and gown, Xue Yifan, 22, looks solemnly into the camera. Standing in front of the big library on campus, her graduation photo is a bit unusual - she is all alone. That’s because Xue is the only paleontology graduate from Peking University this year.


身着学士服,头戴学士帽,22岁的薛逸凡在镜头前显得很严肃。同样以高大的图书馆为背景,薛世凡的毕业照却有些与众不同——照片中只有她一个人,因为她是北京大学古生物学专业今年唯一的毕业生。

The photo went viral after it was posted online. People are impressed by her determination to pursue the academic degree. She devoted herself to a seemingly dull major instead of jumping on the bandwagon.


这张毕业照在被传到网上后迅速走红,她选择这个专业的决心更令人印象深刻。放弃了当下最“火”的专业,薛逸凡却选择了一个看似枯燥无味的专业。

But Xue is not the only student with a genuinely academic goal. There are many more students who choose less popular majors and stick to them, simply because they love what they are learning about.


勇敢追求自己学术目标的远不只薛逸凡一个人,还有很多学生也和她一样因为兴趣爱好而选择了相对冷门的专业。

Pure sound


纯粹的声音

Song Jiazhe, 21, is an audiology student at Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. His university offers the only audiology program for undergraduate students in China. About 100 students graduate from the major every year.


21岁的宋佳哲(音译)就读于浙江中医药大学,因为这所学校是中国唯一本科开设听力学专业的高校,每年约100名该专业的大学生从这里毕业。

“The number of graduates is so small that people seldom even notice the existence of our major,” Song says. But he believes his major is of great importance.


宋佳哲说“这个专业的毕业生实在太少了,人们几乎都没听说过我们专业”。但他坚信自己的专业十分重要。

“We take care of newborn babies and seniors,” he says. Checking the hearing of newborn babies and helping seniors with hearing loss are the two major responsibilities audiology graduates shoulder after their graduation.


他说:“我们照顾新生儿与老年人,为新生儿检查听力,帮助听力受损的老年人是我们专业毕业生的主要职责。”

In order to achieve this goal, Song studies hard and values every opportunity to practice. He spends every vacation interning at hospitals. “I am always the first to arrive and the last to leave, just to get as much real experience as possible,” he says.


为了能履行这一目标,宋佳哲努力学习,珍惜每一个实践机会。每个假期,他都在医院实习,他说:“为了能更多的积累实际经验,我常常是最早到、最晚走的。”

Classy major


优雅的专业

Compared with Song, Meng Ziwei’s major seems more entertaining. The 19-year-old is studying golf management at Shenzhen University. It’s a newly launched major, explains Meng. Her department has less than 100 students, who will work as golf coaches and golf club managers once they graduate.


相较于宋佳哲的专业,孟紫薇(音译)的专业似乎更有意思。这位19岁的姑娘就读于深圳大学高尔夫管理专业。孟紫薇解释道,这是一个新开设的专业,他们系学生人数不足100,而他们毕业之后将成为高尔夫教练或者高尔夫俱乐部的管理人员。

However, the major requires hard work. Meng and her peers not only have classes on business management, but must also attend golf training. “I practice golf three times a week,” she says. Some of her peers even practice on a daily basis. “I love what I’m learning from the bottom of my heart,” she says, “so the tough training is never a problem for me.”


不过,这个专业并不轻松。孟紫薇和她的同学们不仅需要完成商业管理类课程,还要参加高尔夫球训练。她说:“我每周需要练习三次高尔夫球。”而她的一些同学甚至每天都参加训练。但是,她说:“我真心喜欢自己的专业,所以再辛苦的训练于我也不是问题。”

Dinosaur fever


恐龙发烧友

Another student who chose a major based on her interest is Bai Wanyi, a 20-year-old student of paleontology at Shenyang Normal University. She has been a paleontology fan ever since she was in elementary school. “Those dinosaurs just amazed me so much that I decided to study them,” she says. While her peers bought beautiful Barbie dolls, Bai collected rocks. Finally she enrolled in a paleontology program despite resistance from her parents.


同样因为兴趣选择自己专业的还有白婉怡(音译)。20岁的她目前就读于沈阳师范大学古生物学专业。早在上小学的时候,她就是一个古生物迷,她说“那些恐龙深深地吸引了我,于是我决定将来研究它们。”小伙伴们买漂亮的芭比娃娃时,白婉怡却在收集岩石。最后,她顶住来自父母的压力,终于进入古生物专业学习。

“In my eyes, paleontology is not a dull subject that only deals with old rocks. Instead, it studies our past by examining the fossils of ancient life forms,” Bai says. She believes that mastering the present is based on a good understanding of the past.


白婉怡说,“在我看来,古生物专业并不是只和古老岩石打交道的枯燥专业,相反,它让我们通过检测古生物化石,了解人类的过去。”她相信,只有充分了解过去,才能更好地把握当下。

“I’m sticking to the choice I made and I will further my studies in paleontology after I graduate,” she says.


白婉怡说:“我会坚持自己的选择,在毕业后继续钻研古生物学。”


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